At first glance, endurance, one of the motor skills that, together with strength, flexibility, speed, and coordination, are involved in sports practice, seems to occupy a secondary place. However, if it is considered from the point of view of health, it comes first. In terms of prevention, it plays a significant role. Resistance training adapted to personal performance capacity has many positive effects on the cardiovascular system:
- Significant reduction of cardiac work.
- Decreased heart rate due to increased pumping volume.
- Increased volume and weight of the heart.
- Increased oxygen absorption capacity.
- Decreased oxygen consumption by the heart muscle.
- Decreased blood pressure.
- Increased clotting capacity and blood flow.
- Increased breathing volume per minute under load.
- Increased capacity of aerobic enzymes.
- Strengthening of the coronary vessel system.
- Significant reduction – by approximately 50%. of the risk of heart disease.
- Optimization of capillarization of skeletal musculature.
- Increased glycogen content of the musculature skeletal and cardiac.
- Increase in the volume of mitochondria.
- Reduction of stress hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline.
- Decreased cholesterol-LDL level.
- Increase in the level of cholesterol-HDL.
Despite this long list of undisputed benefits from endurance training, which could be greatly expanded, amateur athletes prefer to work with weights. Too rapid an increase in intensity in endurance training is one of the main causes of its abandonment after a short trial period. In most cases, proper planning of the increase in load is not carried out. For example, a person who wants to improve his or her figure decides to practice swimming, cycling, jogging or any other sporting activity, but starts exercising without any intensity control and usually ends up in an overload situation.
Jogging, for example, is one of the most popular physical activities, it can overload joints and muscles if the initial load is longer than it should be or is too intense. In these cases, the pain caused by overloads forces the individual to interrupt training for a long period of time.
Resistance training planning, as in strength training, should be done from the initial performance levels. Two tests for initial performance classification are described in the Training Control chapter. On the other hand, most fitness centers offer their members the opportunity to take an endurance test with the help of an experienced trainer. If the test results are below average, the first stages of training, as well as its duration and load intensity, should be moderate.
For this reason, the sections dedicated to each endurance sport describe special programs for beginners and untrained people. In general, during the first three months of training, the heart rate should be lower than the values indicated in the corresponding tables. In the initial phase, instead of performing an uninterrupted long-term training unit, it is preferable to subdivide the training into three or more parts. During the intermediate breaks you can rest or continue the activity, but with less intensity, for example by walking in a relaxed way between two jogging phases. When you have gained experience and increased endurance, you can gradually do without pauses and gradually increase the duration of the training unit.
Professor Wilfried Kindermann, a specialist in cardiovascular diseases of recognized international prestige, sums up, in a nutshell, the positive effects of training: “Resistance training makes the body need less oxygen, lowers blood pressure, stabilizes heart rate, activates metabolism, fluidizes the blood and, if done properly, has no side effects. What drug is so effective without side effects?”.